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Morgan  Kyle  Mary

Page history last edited by PBworks 15 years, 11 months ago

Major Floods

Year

Place

Cause

Distruction

1893

Brisbane QLD

Brisbane River banks broke

Washed away Albert Raliway bridge at Indorroopilly.

1954

N.S.W

Over Raining Flooded

Water flooded houses at great speed

1955

Dubbo, Tamworth, Wellington, Narromine and Warren.

Rain Depression

Damaged fences , roads railways and bridges also killing lots of farm animals

1973

Northern Territory

Rivers and Stagnant pools over flowed.

No distruction but a good flow of water to arid desert. So it was a benefitial flood.

For at least 5000 Years

Egypt Nile

Nile river overflows

Brings silt from up the river that is used for fertile soil.

http://library.thinkquest.org/10136/floods/flootq.htm#major

WHAT are floods?

Floods are high water levels above the banks of a stream channel, lake shore, or ocean coast that submerge areas of land that are usually dry. They are natural, reoccurring events in every stream, lake, and coastal environment. The duration of floods ranges from minutes to months. A flood can be caused by intense or prolonged precipitation from thunderstorms, storm surges during a hurricane, melting snow, or even dam collapses. Flooding is dependent on soil conditions as much as it is on how much precipitation is received; moderate rainfall can produce flooding in already saturated soils, while heavy rainfall may produce no flooding if the soil is relatively dry. Since most of the world's population lives near coasts and on floodplains, floods are potentially a threat to billions of people. Floods can cause loss of life by drowning or disease, extensive damage to property, power and communication outages, contamination of drinking water, and destruction of crops and fields. They can also trigger other hazards such as slope failures and even fires.

 

 How Floods are Formed?

 

 In the late summer a remarkable flooding brout by Hurricane Katrina, wich caused more than $200 billion in losses. Floods can be caused by hurricanes, weather system, and snow melt. 

 

 

20th Century

 

In the 20th century floods were the most distructive natural disaster as the number one in the united states. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Significant Floods of the 20th Century

 

 

 

http://www.picture-newsletter.com/flood/river-bridge-l9qb.jpg

 

 

hunter valley flood photo

 

 

 

 

 

After a Flood

 

  • Listen for news reports to learn whether the community’s water supply is safe to drink.
  • Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil, gasoline, or raw sewage. Water may also be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines.
  • Avoid moving water.
  • Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a car.
  • Stay away from downed power lines, and report them to the power company.
  • Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe.
  • Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters.
  • Use extreme caution when entering buildings; there may be hidden damage, particularly in foundations.
  • Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems as soon as possible. Damaged sewage systems are serious health hazards.
  • Clean and disinfect everything that got wet. Mud left from floodwater can contain sewage and chemicals.

 

 

Before a Flood

 

when you prepare for a flood you should:

Avoid building in a floodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your home.

  • Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electric panel if susceptible to flooding.
  • Install "check valves" in sewer traps to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of your home.
  • Construct barriers (levees, beams, floodwalls) to stop floodwater from entering the building.
  • Seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage.

 

 

 

During a Flood

When a flood is likly in your area you should:

  • Listen to the radio or television for information.
  • Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is any possibility of a flash flood, move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move.
  • Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons, and other areas known to flood suddenly. Flash floods can occur in these areas with or without such typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain.

If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following:

  • Secure your home. If you have time, bring in outdoor furniture. Move essential items to an upper floor.
  • Turn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do so. Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch electrical equipment if you are wet or standing in water.

If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips:

  • Do not walk through moving water. Six inches of moving water can make you fall. If you have to walk in water, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to check the firmness of the ground in front of you.
  • Do not drive into flooded areas. If floodwaters rise around your car, abandon the car and move to higher ground if you can do so
  • safely. You and the vehicle can be quickly swept away.

Driving Flood Facts

This is veary important when you are driving in floods:

  • Six inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and possible stalling.
  • A foot of water will float many vehicles.
  • Two feet of rushing water can carry away most vehicles including sport utility vehicles (SUV’s) and pick-ups.

 Tools 

 
  • Mess kits,or paper cups, plates and platic silver ware 
  • Emergecy preparedness manual 
  • Portable, battery-operated radio or televiision and extra batteries
  • Flashlight and extra batteries
  • Cash or traveler's cheks, change 
  • Nonelectric can opener, utility knife
  • Fire extinguisher: small canister, ABCt ype
  • Tube tent 
  • Pliers 
  • Tape 
  • Compass 
  • Matches in a waterproof container 
  • Aluminum foil 
  • Plastic storage containers
  • Signal flare
  • Paper , pencil
  •  Needles, thread
  •  Medicine dropper
  •  Shut-off wrench,to turn off household gas and water
  •  Whistle
  •  Plastic sheeting
  •  Map of the area (for locating shelters)

 

 

 

 

Evacuation Plans

When community evacuations become necessary, local officials provide information to the public through the media. In some circumstances, other warning methods, such as sirens or telephone calls, also are used. Additionally, there may be circumstances under which you and your family feel threatened or endangered and you need to leave your home, school, or workplace to avoid these situations.

The amount of time you have to leave will depend on the hazard. If the event is a weather condition, such as a hurricane that can be monitored, you might have a day or two to get ready. However, many disasters allow no time for people to gather even the most basic necessities, which is why planning ahead is essential.

Evacuation: More Common than You Realize

Evacuations are more common than many people realize. Hundreds of times each year, transportation and industrial accidents release harmful substances, forcing thousands of people to leave their homes. Fires and floods cause evacuations even more frequently. Almost every year, people along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts evacuate in the face of approaching hurricanes.

Ask local authorities about emergency evacuation routes and see if maps may are available with evacuation routes marked.

Evacuation Guidelines

Always: If time permits:
Keep a full tank of gas in your car if an evacuation seems likely. Gas stations may be closed during emergencies and unable to pump gas during power outages. Plan to take one car per family to reduce congestion and delay. Gather your disaster supplies kit.
Make transportation arrangements with friends or your local government if you do
not own a car.
Wear sturdy shoes and clothing
that provides some protection,
such as long pants, long-sleeved shirts, and a cap.
Listen to a battery-powered radio and follow local evacuation instructions. Secure your home:

Close and lock doors and windows.

Unplug electrical equipment, such as radios and televisions, and small appliances, such as toasters and microwaves. Leave freezers and refrigerators plugged in unless there is a risk of flooding.
Gather your family and go if you are in- structed to evacuate immediately. Let others know where you are going.
Leave early enough to avoid being trapped by severe weather.  
Follow recommended evacuation routes. Do not take shortcuts; they may be blocked.  
Be alert for washed-out roads and bridges. Do not drive into flooded areas.  
Stay away from downed power lines.

 

 

 

 

Basic Disaster Supplies

There are six basics you should stock in your home:

Keep the items that you would most likely need during an evacuation in an easy-to-carry container. Possible containers include a large, covered trash container; a camping backpack; or a duffle bag.

 

 

 

 

 How much water will i need to have?

 

You should have at least a three-day supply of water and you should store at least one gallon of water per person per day. A normally active person needs at least one-half gallon of water daily just for drinking.

Additionally, in determining adequate quantities, take the following into account:

  • Individual needs vary, depending on age, physical condition, activity, diet, and climate.
  • Children, nursing mothers, and ill people need more water.
  • Very hot temperatures can double the amount of water needed.
  • A medical emergency might require additional water.

 

 

 

 What Causes Floods? 

 

      Most things that will create a flood would be snow melt, a dam braking, after a storm.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During the 20th century, floods were the number-one natural disaster in the United States in terms of number of lives lost and property damage. They can occur at any time of the year, in any part of the country, and at any time of the day or night. Most lives are lost when people are swept away by flood currents, whereas most property damage results from inundation by sediment-laden water. Flood currents also possess tremendous destructive power, as lateral forces can demolish buildings and erosion can undermine bridge foundations and footings leading to the collapse of structures. The accompanying map and table locate and describe 32 of the most significant floods of the 20th century.

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